The AC Locomotive Group

Class 83 Photo Gallery

Electrical Equipment: English Electric
Mechanical Construction: English Electric (Vulcan Foundry)
Built: 1961

83012/E3035 at Barrow Hill83012/E3035 at Barrow Hill

83012 is a rare example of a troublesome English Electric product. In its early years the class suffered a series of problems and failures, which might have led to withdrawal in the 1960s, but for the extension of the West Coast electrification to Glasgow and subsequent refurbishment. Surviving due to use on empty stock trains, the loco was originally preserved in the early 1990s before passing to the Group in 1997. It became the first in our fleet to receive a full cosmetic makeover, being repainted into Electric Blue in 2000.

83012 appeared at the NRM's big event at the end of May 2008.

83012/E3035 at Barrow Hill83012/E3035 at Barrow Hill

English Electric received an order for 15 of the 100 new locomotives for the West Coast Main Line electrification, which were designated Type AL3. Twelve Type A and three Type B locomotives were ordered, the first type As to be delivered being E3023 and E3024 in July 1960. Initially given the number series E3303-E3305, the Type B locomotives were soon renumbered E3098 and E3099, - E3305 (the last to be built) entered traffic as a Type A, numbered E3100, in 1962. This class proved to be the lightest, shortest and lowest powered of the five designs, but this had little impact on performance in the early years. Like Class 82, the AL3s spent their main-line careers allocated to Longsight, except for a brief period in the general allocation AC Lines.

English Electric had always been at the forefront of developing new technologies, and at their insistence, the British Transport Commission agreed to allow the last locomotive (E3305) to be built as a test-bed for Transductor Stepless Tap-Changer control. Financed mainly by EE, the loco was fitted with Silicon rectifiers (as opposed to the Mercury-Arc of the rest of Type AL3), rheostatic brakes and the new control system, and was used in tests for several years. Outshopped as a 100 mph Type A loco, numbered E3100, its appearance was also non-standard, with the three corridor-side windows being replaced by louvres. Tests with this loco proved remarkably successful, and provided BR and EE with valuable knowledge for the development of future designs. Plans to take E3100 to Europe for comparitive tests with French, German and Swiss electric locos were proposed in 1963 and much development work on the loco was carried out, including a bogie swap with E3304 (which was then renumbered E3099 as a Type A machine), but the tests were cancelled, and nothing became of this interesing opportunity.

The early careers of standard Type AL3 proved rather more troublesome than that of E3100. Major problems with the water cooled Mercury-Arc rectifiers developed, resulting in the entire Class being withdrawn in 1969 and put to store. English Electric put forward several proposals to cure the problem, but it wasn't until the authorisation of the northern section of the WCML electrification that the plans were carried out, and Silicon Rectifiers fitted to the fleet during refurbishment at Doncaster in 1973-74. E3100 was also converted to a standard Class 83 at this time, not because of any failure as a test bed, but because very few drivers had been trained on it. As a consequence,it was non-standard and difficult to diagram for day-to-day operation. The class was renumbered into the 83001-83015 series, E3100 becoming 83015.

Unfortunately, refurbishment was not the end to Class 83's troubles. Problems with high-current contactors, together with a weight-distribution problem caused further modification work to be carried out. By the mid seventies, however, most of the problems had been ironed out, and the Class was operating efficiently.

Two Type AL3s were extensively rebuilt at Vulcan Foundry in 1965 after collision damage, with E3028 requiring a complete new cab assembly, while E3027 required work to both cabs and one side. E3027 had something of an unfortunate career, as after being renumbered to 83004, it collided with 47163 at Kensal Green Tunnel on December 24th 1977. The damage was so severe that it was withdrawn immediately and returned to Crewe in sections for component recovery. The other Class 83 to be withdrawn early was 83003, involved in a collision with 86209 at Watford in January 1975, writing off the 83 and leaving 86209 on its side at the bottom of an embankment. Both 47163 and 86209 were returned to service.

As a consequence of being low powered and few in number, Class 83 was withdrawn from main-line service in July 1983, along with Class 82. Two locos, nos. 83012 and 83015 were moved south to Willesden with 82005 and 82008, and put to use on empty carriage duties from Euston. A third loco, 83009, was converted to a static current converter at Longsight. This was to convert 25 kV AC to 1500 V DC for the maintenance of Class 506 1500V DC overhead electric multiple units, then still used on the Manchester - Hadfield/Glossop stub of the former Woodhead Route. These units were withdrawn in 1984 with conversion of the line to 25 kV AC overhead, and 83009 was no longer required. Remarkably, it was sent south, returned to working order, and put to work on e.c.s. duties with classmates 83012 and 83015. The remainder of the class was sent for scrap at Vic Berry's yard, Leicester.

The end came in 1988, with the arrival of Class 81s at Willesden for e.c.s. use. The three Class 83s were sent to Crewe, joining the remaining Class 82s at Crewe Electric Depot's "graveyard". The locos were sold in 1993, nos 83009 and 83015 to MC Metals of Glasgow for scrap, while 83012 was bought for preservation.

83012/E3035 at Barrow Hill83012/E3035 at Barrow Hill

Built as the last Type A, E3035 entered service on 8th July 1961, allocated to the general "AC Lines" code. Suffering from the rectifier problems afflicting the rest of the Class, it was taken out of service and stored with others of AL3 and AL4 in the unusual location of Bury Steam Shed (adjacent to what is now the East Lancs Railway's Buckley Wells Works) from April 1969 until February 1972. Refurbished at Doncaster, and renumbered 83012, it returned to main-line use in 1974, allocated to Longsight (LG).

83012 became somewhat distinctive during its last years as a 100 mph locomotive, being the only AC electric to retain an operational headcode panel in place of the usual white-dot marker panel. It was still in this state when withdrawn in 1983.

Reinstated to Euston empty carriage (ECS) duties, based at Willesden Depot, 83012 gained the unofficial name "Enterprise" for a period in 1983/early 1984. 83012 became something of a celebrity when in 1985, like 82008, it was repainted into InterCity Executive livery and fitted with a "cross-arm" pantograph. It became the only locomotive ever to carry InterCity livery while still retaining its four-digit headcode panel - indeed, it is thought that it was the last locomotive on BR to be so fitted. Late in its time at Willesden, a bogie swap with 83015 was made, but final withdrawal came in 1988, following the arrival of Class 81s, nos 81002 and 81004.

82008 and 83012 moved to Crewe, where it remained until purchased by Pete Waterman in 1992.

Following asbestos removal at MC Metals, Glasgow, the loco received a complete cosmetic overhaul at the Lancastrian Carriage and Wagon Company of Heysham. The loco toured various open days around the country, often in the company of 81002 and 85101 before returning to store at Crewe.

83012/E3035 at Barrow Hill83012/E3035 at Barrow Hill

Purchased in 1997 by the AC Locomotive Group, the loco was moved to Barrow Hill on 5th December 1998. Since then the loco's cooling fans have been restored to operational order, providing the deafening sound of an 83 in full cry once again. Lighting circuits are also operational and the air-brakes have been fully overhauled. Other systems are gradually being returned to working order, most recently the loco's "Arno" converter.

Plans to repaint the loco into original Electric Blue livery as E3035 coincided with an approach to Virgin Trains in 1999, offering use of one of the fleet for the launch of Virgin's new rolling stock. As a result, Virgin agreed to sponsor the paint for E3035's restoration, and following the repaint the loco was exhibited alongside Virgin's first-built Class 390 "Pendolino" driving car at the Old Oak Common Open Days on 5/6 August 2000.

The 3-phase Arno converter was re-energised during 2001 and this allowed the loco's systems to be powered from the Generator Car. This was done successfully on a number of occasions up until early 2003.

The loco's brakes were again restored to full working order in 2003, including recertification of the air receivers, in time to travel to the Doncaster Plant 150 Open Weekend in July at Doncaster Works where it was exhibited with 84001 and 85101. It also attended Crewe Works Open Days in September 2005.

It received a full repaint in early 2008 and was exhibited at the NRM's '1968 and all that' event.


Original Number E3035
BR TOPS Number 83012
Network Rail TOPS Number 89535
Number Carried E3035
Current Livery Electric Blue


Type / Class AL3 / 83
Original BR 1957 Number Series E3023-E3035, E3303-E3305
Revised BR 1957 Number Series E3023-E3035, E3098-E3100
BR TOPS Original Number Series 83001-83015
Introduced 1960-1962


Builder Vulcan Foundry, Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire
Electrical Equipment Manufacturer English Electric
Works Number Series 2928/E264-2942/E278


Weight In Working Order 73 tons
Length Over Buffers 52' 6"
Width 8' 8 5/8"
Height Over Body 12' 4 1/4"
Height Over Pantograph (lowered) 13' 0 9/16"
Wheelbase 40'
Bogie Wheelbase 10'
Bogie Pivot Centres 30'
Wheel Diameter 4'
Minimum Curve 4 chains


Maximum Speed 100 mph (40 mph for Euston e.c.s. duties)
Horsepower (full field) 2940 hp
Horsepower (weak field) 2950 hp
Maximum Rail Horsepower 4400 hp at 50 mph
Maximum Tractive Effort 40000 lb (Type A), 48000 lb (Type B)
Continuous Tractive Effort 15260 lb at 73 mph
Brake Force 38 tons
Electric Train Heating Index 66


Transformer and Control Gear Oil cooled, On Load Low Tension Tap Changing
Rectifier Type Mercury Arc Ignitron single anode liquid cooled
except E3100 - Silicon rectifiers with transductor control
All later replaced by Silicon rectifiers
Voltage Detection Equipment (never used) Capacitor divider
Bogie Type Fabricated steel, conventional axlebox guides
Circuit Breaker Type Brown Boveri Air Blast Circuit Breaker
Traction Motor Type EE 535A 4-pole (740 hp)
Traction Motor Drive BB-SLM Spring
Gear Ratios 25/76 (Type A), 20/76 (Type B - later converted to Type A)
Pantograph Type 2 x Stone-Faiveley (one later removed), later 83012 had 1 x AEI "cross-arm"
Locomotive Brake Type Air
Train Brake Type Vacuum, later Vacuum and Air

1st E No. (1959)2nd E No. (1960)1st TOPS No.2nd TOPS No.Depart-mental No.Network Rail '89' No.Last No.BuilderIntroStatusNotesNames1965 Proposed Names
E3024 83001 83001EE / VFJul-60Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry LeicesterElector
E3025 83002 83002EE / VFJul-60Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry LeicesterEagle
E3026 83003 83003EE / VFAug-60Scrapped 1975: BREL CreweWatford Junction Crash (1975)Empress
E3027 83004 83004EE / VFSep-60Scrapped 1978: BR Willesden ETDKensal Green Crash (1977)
E3028 83005 83005EE / VFSep-60Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry Leicester
E3029 83006 83006EE / VFOct-60Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry Leicester
E3030 83007 83007EE / VFOct-60Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry Leicester
E3031 83008 83008EE / VFNov-60Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry Leicester
E3032 83009 83009EE / VFNov-60Scrapped 1993: MC Metals Glasgow
E3033 83010 83010EE / VFDec-60Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry Leicester
E3034 83011 83011EE / VFFeb-61Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry Leicester
E3035 83012 8953583012EE / VFJul-61Preserved 1997: The AC Locomotive GroupOriginally preserved by Pete Waterman.Enterprise (unofficial) (1983/4)
E3303E309883013 83013EE / VFMar-61Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry Leicester
E3304E309983014 83014EE / VFMay-61Scrapped 1984: Vic Berry Leicester
E3305E310083015 83015EE / VFJun-62Scrapped 1993: MC Metals GlasgowOriginal E-number E3305 not carried. Built as transductor stepless-control prototype.